What is coronary artery disease(CAD)?
Coronary artery disease is the arteries, which start out smooth and elastic, get plaque on their inner walls, which can make them more rigid and narrowed. This restrict blood flow to your heart muscle, which can then become starved of oxygen.
Moreover the plaque could rupture, leading to a heart attack or sudden cardiac death.
Heart attack, or myocardial infarction, happens when the heart muscle does not have enough blood, and therefore oxygen. The muscle dies as well as a heart attack occurs.
A heart attack commonly occurs when a blood clot develops from a plaque in one of the coronary arteries. Moreover the clot, if it is big enough, can stop the supply of blood to the heart. The blood clot is known as coronary thrombosis.
Symptoms of a coronary artery disease include:
- First of all, chest discomfort and mild pain, or a crushing chest pain
- Also coughing
- Similarly dizziness
- shortness of breath
- face seems gray
- an overall feeling of being unwell and fear that life is coming to an end
- nausea and vomiting
- perspiration and clammy skin
The first symptom is normally chest pain that spreads to the neck, jaw, ears, arms, and wrists, and possibly the shoulder blades, the back, or the abdomen.
Causes of coronary artery disease:
The most common cause of CAD is vascular injury with cholesterol plaque buildup in the arteries, known as Atherosclerosis. Reduced blood flow occurs when one or more of these arteries becomes partially or completely blocked.
The four primary coronary arteries are located on the surface of the heart
1.right main coronary artery
2.left main coronary artery
3.left circumflex artery
4.left anterior descending artery
These arteries bring oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to heart.Your heart is a muscle that’s responsible for pumping blood throughout your body. According to cleveland clinic, a healthy heart moves approximately 3,000 gallons of blood through your body every day.Like any other organ or muscle, your heart must receive an adequate, dependable supply of blood in order to carry out its work. Reduced blood flow to your heart can cause symptoms of CAD.
Other rare causes of damage or blockage to a coronary artery also limit blood flow to the heart.
You can prevent CAD by making significant lifestyle changes, such as improving your diet and living an active lifestyle.
If you smoke, ask your doctor to help you quit. Smoking makes it harder and less enjoyable to exercise or participate in sports. It spikes your blood pressure and increases the likelihood that a dangerous blood clot may form.
If you haven’t been able to quit on your own, talk to your doctor or visit the local community health center. Many states offer programs to stop smoking that are funded by tobacco company settlements. Check online to see if these free or low-cost resources are available in your state.
Treatment for coronary artery disease usually involves lifestyle changes and, if necessary, drugs and certain medical procedures.
Making a commitment to the following healthy lifestyle changes can go a long way toward promoting healthier arteries:
- Quit smoking.
- Eat healthy foods.
- Exercise regularly.
- Lose excess weight.
- Reduce stress.
Various drugs can be used to treat coronary artery disease, including:
- Cholesterol-modifying medications. By decreasing the amount of cholesterol in the blood, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or the “bad”) cholesterol, these drugs decrease the primary material that deposits on the coronary arteries. Moreover your doctor can choose from a range of medications, including statins, niacin, fibrates and bile acid sequestrants.
- Aspirin. Your doctor may recommend taking a daily aspirin or other blood thinner. Moreover this can reduce the tendency of your blood to clot, which may help prevent obstruction of your coronary arteries.If you’ve had a heart attack, aspirin can help prevent future attacks. There are some cases where aspirin isn’t appropriate, such as if you have a bleeding disorder or you’re already taking another blood thinner, so ask your doctor before starting to take aspirin.
- Beta blockers. Moreover these drugs slow your heart rate and decrease your blood pressure, which decreases your heart’s demand for oxygen. If you’ve had a heart attack, beta blockers reduce the risk of future attacks.
- Calcium channel blockers. Moreover these drugs may be used with beta blockers if beta blockers alone aren’t effective or instead of beta blockers if you’re not able to take them. These drugs can help improve symptoms of chest pain.
- Ranolazine. Moreover this medication may help people with chest pain (angina). It may be prescribed with a beta blocker or instead of a beta blocker if you can’t take it.
- Nitroglycerin. Moreover Nitroglycerin tablets, sprays and patches can control chest pain by temporarily dilating your coronary arteries and reducing your heart’s demand for blood.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Moreover these similar drugs decrease blood pressure and may help prevent progression of coronary artery disease.
This is the one of the main cause of death in all over the world.
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